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Mapping the towns of Europe: The European towns in Braun & Hogenberg’s Town Atlas, 1572-1617

Cartographie des villes d’Europe: Les villes européennes dans l’Atlas des Villes de Braun et Hogenberg, 1572-1617
Peter van der Krogt
p. 371-398

Résumés

Le Civitates orbis terrarum ou “Braun & Hogenberg”, publié en six volumes entre 1572 et 1617 à Cologne, est le plus connu des premiers atlas des villes. Bien que sans précédent comparable, il répondait d’emblée à une large demande du fait qu’à cette époque la vie sociale, politique et économique se trouvait concentrée dans les villes.
En outre, le style imagé des plans et des illustrations plaisait beaucoup au grand public.
Chacun des six volumes est une entité distincte présentant des plans de villes situées dans l’ensemble de l’Europe (et parfois même hors d’Europe). Lorsqu’un plan plus récent d’une ville était réalisé, il était inclus dans un des volumes ultérieurs sans changement du contenu du volume précédent. En fait, le contenu d’un volume n’a jamais été modifié d’aucune façon. Les auteurs en sont Georg Braun (Bruin), Frans Hogenberg et Simon van den Neuvel (Novellanus).
Cet article étudie le choix des villes décrites ainsi que la répartition de ces villes en Europe, la façon dont les villes ont été décrites (plans, vue d’ensemble, profil, paysage), ainsi que les informations données à leur sujet.

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Texte intégral

This article is based upon the research for Koeman’s Atlantes Neerlandici, vol. IV: The Town Atlases, in preparation, scheduled for publication late 2009.

Introduction

  • 1 TOOLEY R.V. (1966), “Preface” to Mirror of the World, a series of early books on the history of urb (...)

“The Civitates is one of the great books of the World, (...) a wonderful compendium of knowledge of life in Europe in the sixteenth century, (...) it gives a visual printed record of mediaeval Europe, and is one of the most valuable sources remaining to the student and historian of these periods” (R.V.Tooley)1.

1Contrary to what is often thought, a great deal of travelling was done in the 16th century. The number of travellers was greater than ever before in that century, the only exception was the number of pilgrims, which was less than in previous centuries. Salesmen, students, “tourists” and other adventurers travelled from city to city in ever larger numbers. Towns were of the most interest to travellers. Sixteenth century towns were “the seat and symbol of organized social life” and the centre of trade.

  • 2 VAN DER KROGT P. (1998), “The Theatrum Orbis Terrarum: The first atlas?” in Abraham Ortelius and th (...)
  • 3 VAN DER KROGT P., Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici IV: The Town Atlases, ‘t Goy-Houten, HES & De Graaf (...)

2Interest in towns was as great, if not greater, than interest in countries and territories. We should therefore not be at all surprised that while Abraham Ortelius was preparing his atlas with maps of the entire world, work was being done on a publication with a similar systematic depiction and description of all the towns of the world. Ortelius published his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, in 15702. The first part of the town description, the Civitates Orbis Terrarum, came out two years later3.

3This publication, which would ultimately consist of six parts, is usually known by the names of its authors, the “Braun and Hogenberg.” The authors are Georg Braun (or Bruin) (1541-1622), a clergyman from Cologne, who was responsible for the text, and Frans Hogenberg, the most important engraver and quite likely initiator of the project. Preparation of the Civitates must have overlapped with that of Ortelius’ Theatrum by two or three years. Hogenberg was working on both projects simultaneously during that period and, given his close association with Ortelius, it is difficult to believe Braun came up with the original idea. During his visit to Antwerp in 1566-68, Braun could have met both Ortelius and Hogenberg and it is possible that the idea for the Theatrum style town atlas was born in conversations between these three men. Contemporary sources regarded both works as mutually complementary.

Presentation of the first volume

4The title page of the Civitates (Fig. 1) displays great stylistic similarities with that of the Theatrum. Whereas the Theatrum displays allegorical representations of the continents however, the title page of the Civitates is devoted to the origin of cities and architecture according to Greek mythology. It shows a façade with a statue of the Magna Mater (Great Mother), the source of all wisdom and knowledge in ancient Greek mythology. The title of the part is inscribed in the pedestal of this statue. The Magna Mater holds in her right hand a carpenter’s level, and in her left hand a golden compass and a carpenter’s square, instruments of building and construction. This symbolizes that she taught humanity the art of laying the foundations of great buildings. Below her the text reads ORNAMENT. ORB. TERR. (Ornamenta Orbis Terrarum: Embellish­ments of the World).

Figure 1. Title page of part 1 (Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek).

Figure 1. Title page of part 1 (Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek).

5The facade with the statue is flanked by two stone columns topped by globes. On these globes the words POS | TERI | TATI and CON | SVL | TVM (In order to educate our descendants) are written. In front of the left column stands Pallas Athene (Minerva), the Greek goddess of wisdom and reason, the patron goddess of towns. She is described as ARCIVM INVENTRIX, the inventor of fortresses. On the right side stands Cain, naked except for an animal skin and in his left hand an ox’s jawbone. He is described as OPPIDOR. AVCTOR: the designer of towns. As Braun explains in his foreword, Cain had built the first town, named Enoch, after murdering his brother – the ox’s jawbone is the murder weapon.

6The lower frieze of the structures shows three visions of the earliest stages of the settlement of mankind, illustrating the first three paragraphs of Braun’s foreword (which have the same titles):
- Centre: CONSOCIAT. HVMANI GEN. ORIGO. (consociationis humani generis origo, origin of the amalgamation of mankind): mankind learns the use of fire after lightning struck a tree (Vitrivius, Architectura 2).
- Right: DOMICIL. TYROCIN. (domicilii tyrocinium, the first appearance of settlements): the undertaking of husbandry and cultivation of the fields.
- Left: ARCHITECT. RVDIM. (architecturae rudimentum, the rudiments of architecture): making rudimentary huts and building walls.

The six volumes

7While the initial intention was to publish only one part, its success quickly gave its creators the idea to publish a second part, and subsequently expand both parts.

8The second part came out in 1575. In the introduction to this second part, Braun requested those who did not find their own town in it to send in an image which could then be engraved and subsequently added to one of the two parts. This request resulted in so much material that there was enough for a third part, which was completed in 1581. A fourth part would follow in 1588, and a fifth part in 1597.

9It would be another twenty years before the completion of the Civitates Orbis Terrarum. The sixth and final part only appeared in 1617.

10In addition to the publications with Latin texts, versions were published with German and French texts. It must be remarked that all three editions contained exactly the same maps. The language difference concerned only the printed texts.

11The various parts are roughly the same in dimension. Each part contains 59 sheets, except part 5 which has ten more.

12If we count the two separately bound sheets of the double sheet maps of Rome and Jerusalem in part 4 as one, there are 361 sheets, of which four are in two sheets (the two others are Kraków and Antwerp, which always appear mounted in the atlas).

13These 361 sheets contain 543 different images of 475 towns (which will be elaborated later on) and four other representations, namely two maps (4:25 Denmark and 4:27 Hven), a sheet of costumes of Dithmarschen (5:37), and a heraldic representation of Hainault (3:23).

Volume

Date

Sheets Towns

I

1572

59

138

II

1575

59

80

III

1581

59

80

IV

1588

57 (59*)

76

V

1597

69

95

VI

1617

58

74

Total

361

543

*vol. 4 includes 2 double sheets

Towns of the world or towns of Europe?

14Braun and Hogenberg certainly attempted to present towns of the whole world in their work. But did they actually succeed?

15In the first part they were moving in the right direction: seven of the 59 sheets are devoted to non-European towns, of which a total of 21 were represented, 12 from Africa, 7 in Asia and 2 in America, meaning that 12% of the sheets, and even 15% of the towns are non-European.

16In part 2 another six sheets of 8 images are non-European (both approximately 10%).

17The later parts however contain no non-European towns, with the exception of the map of Jerusalem in part 4.

18This means that of the 361 sheets and 543 towns in the Civitates Europae Terrarum, only 14 sheets with 30 images are non-European (of 27 towns, 3x Jerusalem and 2x Tunis, Fig. 2). So 4% of the sheets and 5% of the towns are non-European, and it is therefore easy to calculate that 96% of the sheets and 95% of the towns are European (See Fig. 3 and appendix 1 for a list of towns).

Figure 2. Non-European towns in the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

Figure 2. Non-European towns in the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

19We could therefore state that the Civitates Orbis Terrarum was in reality an atlas of European towns, and could in fact have been named Civitates Europae Terrarum!

20The work is not as systematically constructed as the Theatrum. The inclusion of town views or maps was determined by availability, and the desire to include as many towns as possible, rather than the systematic decision-making of a compiler. This is immediately apparent by the speed with which maps acquired by chance were included in the collection.

21Moreover, each of the six parts is a distinct entity, containing town maps in a strict geographical order:

22- The British Isles,
- Spain and Portugal,
- France,
- The Low Countries,
- Germany,
- Denmark, Sweden and Norway,
- Hungary,
- Poland, Lithuania and Muscovy,
- (Outside Europe, if any).

Figure 3. European towns in the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

Figure 3. European towns in the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.

New town plans

23When a more recent plan of a town was acquired, it was included in one of the later parts without changing the contents of the earlier part. In fact, the content of the parts was never changed at all.

24A few examples of towns that appear in various parts:

25Amsterdam (Fig. 4a-b):
The plan included in part 1 is a reduced copy of the large town plan by Cornelis Anthonisz. 1544. In part 6 a new plan was included showing the new town extensions.

Figure 4a. Amsterdam in part 1 (Antiquariaat Forum, ’t Goy-Houten).

Figure 4a. Amsterdam in part 1 (Antiquariaat Forum, ’t Goy-Houten).

Figure 4b. Amsterdam in part 6 (Antiquariaat Forum, ’t Goy-Houten).

Figure 4b. Amsterdam in part 6 (Antiquariaat Forum, ’t Goy-Houten).

26Antwerp:
The plan in part 1 – published in 1572 – already depicts the new citadel, which was completed in 1572.

27In part 5 of 1597 it was replaced by a Joris Hoefnagel plan with roughly the same geographic representation, yet larger and more impressive in size.

28Moscow:
A primitive plan in part 2 which vaguely resembles the Kremlin, by Sigismund von Herberstein, 1547. Part 6 includes the superior plan based on a Russian map brought to Amsterdam by Isaac Massaand published by Hessel Gerritsz in 1613.

29Not only larger towns were included twice, but also the small town of Husum in Schleswig-Holstein appears twice; in part 4 on a plate together with Haderslev, and in part 5 with Tönning – the latter is definitely not an improvement.

30More than 50 towns are included twice, some even three times (For example Rome and Jerusalem).

Distribution of maps by country

31A second result of the attempt to include as many towns as possible is the uneven and apparently arbitrary division of the various countries across the various parts, in which the towns of Germany and the Netherlands in particular are overrepresented. The availability of imagery, rather than a methodical selection, therefore seemed to be the criterion for inclusion in the atlas.

32Let us have a look at how the maps are divided in each part over the various countries:

33Initially, in part 1, we see a concentration of towns in the German states and the Netherlands.
In part 2 we see mostly the addition of towns in the Netherlands and the border regions of the Holy Roman Empire. Notable is also the concentration of towns in Andalucía.
Part 3 also displays an increase in the density of towns in the Netherlands, for which the work of Jacob van Deventer, who passed away in Cologne in 1574, was utilized. Various Italian towns have also been added. Notable is the row of towns in the centre of Germany. It seems as if someone has travelled from Cologne to Dresden, collecting town maps along the way!
Part 4 displays the same picture as part 3, with a particular concentration of towns in Schleswig-Holstein and around Copenhagen. For the towns in the Netherlands, the work of Jacob van Deventer has again been used.
Of particular note in part 5 is the concentration of towns in Northern Germany, along the Moselle and again in Andalucía.
The concluding volume, part 6 shows the most peculiar picture. The main intention of this part seems to be to depict towns in the Eastern part of Central Europe. This is closely linked to the interest in the area at that time, fuelled by the Ottoman Wars. It is because of this that many of the sheets in part 6 are in fact more images of sieges than “true” town depictions.

34If we combine everything into one overall picture, we see that the towns depicted are mainly those of the Netherlands, the Holy Roman Empire, Central Italy and Andalucía. The British Isles, France and the rest of Spain are markedly underrepresented.

35Rather than teaching us what the actual objective of Braun and Hogenberg was, this division of towns tells us more about the availability of town maps in Cologne and Antwerp around 1600.

Various types of town representations

36A large number of town views were made by the well-known topographic illustrator Joris Hoefnagel (63 town views over six parts, of which 28 are in part V). Hoefnagel made two large journeys together with Abraham Ortelius. The first of these was to Italy; there is a picture of them walking down to the river at Tivoli on 1 February 1578, and another was Andalucía. This particularly explains the high concentration of images of Andalucía.

37A result of this method of compilation is the depiction of the towns in dissimilar ways. Some illustrations are pure landscape drawings, while others depict town profiles or plans and all manner of variations between these.

38The main types of town illustrations:
Town plans (e.g. Fig. 5: Brussels, part 1, no. 14)
Bird’s-eye view (e.g. Fig. 6: Frankfurt/M, part 1, no. 35)
Profile (e.g. Fig. 7: Dunkerque, part 2, no. 23)
Landscape (e.g. Fig. 8: Alhama de Granada, part 2, no. 3)
Battles views (e.g. Fig. 9: Tunis 1574, part 2, no. 58), mainly in part 6.

Figure 5. Example of a town plan: Brussels (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

Figure 5. Example of a town plan: Brussels (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

Figure 6. Example of a bird’s-eye view: Frankfurt am Main (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

Figure 6. Example of a bird’s-eye view: Frankfurt am Main (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

Figure 7. Example of a town profile: Dunkerque (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

Figure 7. Example of a town profile: Dunkerque (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

Figure 8. Example of a landscape: Alhama de Granada (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

Figure 8. Example of a landscape: Alhama de Granada (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

Figure 9. Example of a battle view: Tunis 1574 (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

Figure 9. Example of a battle view: Tunis 1574 (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

Figure 10. Panoramic view of Toledo, from part 5, no. 15 (Hebrew University of Jerusalem), and a photograph from a slightly different view angle, taken on 7 October 2007 (photo: José Manuel Azcona).

Figure 10. Panoramic view of Toledo, from part 5, no. 15 (Hebrew University of Jerusalem), and a photograph from a slightly different view angle, taken on 7 October 2007 (photo: José Manuel Azcona).

How accurate are the drawings?

39No systematic research has yet been done. It goes without saying that this depends on the author. Earlier we discussed the early plan of Moscow which scarcely bears resemblance to the modern city. Yet if we look at the view of Toledo and compare it to a modern photograph from roughly the same perspective (Fig. 10), we see that the depiction of the town was surprisingly accurate.

40Depicting a town such as Palmanova, established in 1593, is of course simple (Fig. 11). The town already makes an appearance in part 5 of the Civitates of 1596/97. It is likely that the original drawing by the architect was used rather than that it was mapped out again.

41True research into this aspect of the town atlas has yet to be undertaken.

Figure 11. Plan of Palmanova (Antiquariaat Forum, ’t Goy-Houten).

Figure 11. Plan of Palmanova (Antiquariaat Forum, ’t Goy-Houten).

Texts

42A very important, yet often overlooked or forgotten, factor is the back of maps. Just as Ortelius did, Braun supplied a description of the area depicted on the plan overview; in this particular case that of a town.

43As an example we will reproduce and discuss here the text to the town of Delft in Holland from part 3 (no. 29; Fig. 12). In appendix 2 a transcription of the text is given in the three languages (Latin, German and French). For easy reference, the paragraphs have been numbered.

44The text starts with a brief description of the name (paragraph 1). Then follow the location (2) and evolution (town rights) of the town (3), followed by the appearance of the town, its inhabitants and the economic condition (4-7).

Figure 12. Plan of Delft (Antiquariaat Forum, ’t Goy-Houten).

Figure 12. Plan of Delft (Antiquariaat Forum, ’t Goy-Houten).

45Paragraphs 8-13 give descriptions of several churches and public buildings: the two large churches the Nieuwe Kerk (New Church, founded in 1384), and the Oude Kerk (Old Church, founded in the 13th century), and St. Agatha convent, the most important of the Delft convents. Particular interest is given to the paintings in the churches.

46A historical overview follows in paragraphs 14-20. Only two events are mentioned: The siege of 1359 (16) and the large town fire of 1536 (17). That of the fire includes a detailed story of a stork that was unable to bring its young to safety on time and subsequently attempted to protect them with its wings. All died in the fire (18-20).

47Finally paragraphs 21-24 give an overview of the most well-known inhabitants of the town:
David Joris (1501-1556), glass painter who gained renown as an Anabaptist and heretic.
Joost Sasbout (1487-1546), Chancellor of Gelderland, descendant of a well known Delft family, with an epitaph on his grave in Arnhem.
Cornelis Musius (1500-1572), prior of Saint Agatha convent.

  • 4 GUICCIARDINI L. (1567), La description de touts les Païs Bas, Antwerp, Silvius.

48The first impression one would get is that a number of arbitrary facts about the geography, history, economy and inhabitants has simply been collected. The source is not cited, although it is probable that Lodovico Guicciardini’s 1567 description of the Netherlands4 has been used in this case, as in the case of many other towns in the Netherlands. Further research is necessary.

Costumed figures

49On all the plates in the Braun and Hogenberg town atlases a few people are illustrated in the corners (Fig. 13). These characters are clothed in the dress particular to their town.

Figure 13. Some of the costumed figures (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

Figure 13. Some of the costumed figures (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).

Besançon (2.16)

50These are not merely included for cultural information however.

51Georg Braun wrote in a preface in 1572 that he hoped that his work would not only be pleasing to the eye, but that it also would serve some practical purpose. For example, to discover how the town walls and defence mechanisms of towns conquered by the Turks looked, in the hope that they may be re-conquered. Because, Braun wrote, even Alexander the Great had research done, and plans made, of towns in order to see how they could best be conquered.

52And here it comes: “No one need be afraid that our work will bring harm to Christians, by helping the conquest of their important towns by the enemy. We have prevented this not inconsiderable danger. In all the town descriptions we have included illustrations of the different clothing of all nations and people, of both high and low social positions. We have done so, as the bloodthirsty Turks, who are not permitted to see carved or drawn illustrations, will never allow this book, however useful it may be to them.” (see the original texts in the box).

53And this brings us to a very current topic. Listening to commentary regarding Turkey’s potential accession to the European Union, one might easily ask oneself whether anything has truly changed in Europe’s perception of Turkey over the past 450 years.

Neque verò est cur consilium hoc Christianis tandem aliquando noxium & perniciosum fore quis putet, eò quòd primariæ ipsorum urbes fidei hostibus hac occasione contemplandæ & discutiendæ veniant. Huic siquidem malo, quid quidem haud exiguum fore putabamus, ea ratione occurrimus, dum diversarum nationum ac gentium diversum vestiendi cultum & habitum, utriusque tam præstantioris, quàm deterioris sexus effigies urbium simulachris appingi curavimus. Quam sanè ob causam immanissimi Turchi, qui omnino nullas, vel sculptas, vel depictas imagines ferunt, nunquam hoc opus, etiamsi maxime ipsis emolumento esset futurum, admittent.

Unnd darff sich niemandt förchten, als wen diß vornhemen den Christen einigen schaden künte brengen, drumb das ihrer vornembster Stette gelegte, den feind eröffnet wurden. Welchen vbel, welchs dan in sich nit gering were, wir mit der manier vorkhommen, weil wir aller Nationen unnd verscheidener völcker vngleiche art der kleidungen, so wol hohes als nidrigen standes bey eine jedere Stadt haben lassen setzen, Der vrsach halben, die blutdürstige Turcken, welche keine geschnittene oder gemahlte Bilder leiden, diß buch nummer, wie hohen nutz es ihnen auch brengen kunte, zulassen werden.

Et n’i a point pourquoy aucun doive penser que cestre nostre entreprise puisse estre quelque foys nuisible ou preiudiciable aux Chrestiens, en ce que leurs villes principales pourroyent à ceste occasion estre espiees & vi­sitees par les ennemis de nostre foy. Pourtant que nous avons obvié à ce mal lequel nous reputions n’estre petit, mais bien grand, & singulierement par ce moyen, cest à sçavoir en faisant adiouster á chasque figure des villes, les effigies tant de l’homme que de la femme d’icelle ville ou pays avecques diverses guises des habits d’iceux. A cause de quoy les Turcs inhumains qui ne souffrent en aucune maniere de voir ou regarder figures quelconques, images gravees ou peintes, ne vodropyent iamais recevoir cest oeuvre quelque profit qu’il leur apportast.

Conclusion

54I will conclude with a quote by Ronald Vere Tooley, taken from his preface to the facsimile-publication of the Braun and Hogenberg:

55“The whole forms a wonderful compendium of knowledge of life in Europe in the sixteenth century. And as city growth in early times, with a few obvious exceptions, was more or less static, even further it gives a visual printed record of mediaeval Europe, and is one of the most valuable sources remaining to the student and historian of these periods.”

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Annexe

List of towns in the Civitates Orbis Terrarum
First column: modern name of the town, listed by country (in 2008).
Second column: volume and order number (for volume 1, the number printed on the map verso. The first map is A, the second 1, the third 2 etc.).

Austria
Eisenstadt 6.22a
Enns 6.23
Gmunden 5.53
Innsbruck 1.40b, 2.42, 5.58
Linz 5.52
Mannersdorf 6.22b
Salzburg 1.31c (two versions), 3.47
Schloßberg bei Seefeld 5.59b
St. Pölten 6.24
Steinach am Brenner 5.59c
Wien 1.41a, 6.21
Zirl im Inntal 5.59a

Belgium
Aalst 4.10
Antwerpen 1.17, 5.27
Beaumont 3.26d
Brugge 1.16 (two versions)
Brussel 1.14
Chimay 3.27c
Gent 1.15
Huy 2.19
Ieper 2.22
Leuven 1.18b (two versions), 3.11
Liège 1.11
Lier 4.11
Limbourg 2.18
Mariembourg 3.27b
Mechelen 1.18c (two versions), 3.12
Mons 1.13a, 3.24
Namur 2.20, 3.32
Oostende 6.11
Philippeville 3.27a
Tienen 3.13
Tournai 4.09
Walcourt 3.27d

Belarus
Grodno 2.48

Croatia
Kostajnica 6.42
Petrinja 6.36
Porec 2.52b
Šibenik 2.52a

Czech republic
Brno 6.29
Cáslav 6.25a
Cheb 1.29b
Chomutov 6.25b
Louny 6.26a
Polná 6.27
Praha 1.29a, 5.49
Slany 6.26b
Znojmo 6.28

Denmark
Haderslev 4.33b
Helsingør 4.26, 5.33a
København 4.28
Kolding 5.32
Odense 5.30
Ribe 5.33b
Tønder 5.34b

France
Angers 5.20b
Arras 1.13b, 3.22
Autun 3.10a
Avesnes 3.26c
Avignon 2.13
Bar-le-Duc 6.08
Besançon 2.16
Béthune 4.07
Blâmont 2.17
Blois 2.14
Bordeaux 1.09c
Bourbourg 2.23c
Bourges 2.10b
Calais 5.22
Cambrai 4.05, 5.21
Chalon-sur-Saône 4.04b
Chartres 3.08a
Châteaudun 3.08b
Colmar 2.36c
Douai 3.20
Dunkerque 2.23a
Fontainebleau 6.06b
Givet: Fort de Charlemont 3.26a
Gravelines 2.23b
Grenoble 3.09a
Henrichemont 5.18c
Hesdin 4.06
La Rochelle 2.11
Landrecies 3.26b
Lille 3.19
Lyon 1.10, 5.19a
Mâcon 4.04a
Marseille 2.12
Metz 2.15
Montpellier 1.08a (two versions)
Mulhouse 6.16b
Nancy 6.07
Nevers 3.10b
Nîmes 1.09b
Orléans 2.10a, 3.06
Paris 1.07
Poitiers 1.08c (two versions), 5.18a
Poitiers: Pierre Levée 5.18b
Romans-sur-Isère 3.09b
Rouen 1.09a, 3.07
Rouffach 2.36b
Saintes 5.17
Saint-Germain-en-Laye 6.06a
Saint-Omer 4.08
Strasbourg 1.33
Tours 1.08a (two versions), 5.20a
Valenciennes 3.25
Vienne 5.19b
Wissembourg 2.36a

Germany
Aachen 1.12 (two versions)
Arnsberg 4.22
Augsburg 1.39
Bad Segeberg 4.32
Bamberg 6.15
Bardowick 5.44
Barth 5.45
Bernkastel 5.25b
Bonn 2.33b
Boppard 4.24b
Braunschweig 1.23a
Bremen 1.23c, 5.41
Brühl 2.33c
Büdingen 6.13
Cochem 5.24a
Dillenburg 6.12a
Dormagen-Zons 2.33d
Dortmund 4.20b
Dresden 1.28a
Duisburg 2.34b
Eckernförde 5.31
Eisleben 4.40a
Emden 2.32
Emmerich 2.34c
Erfurt 1.25c (two versions)
Eschwege 3.39a
Essen 3.40b
Essen-Werden 3.40a
Eutin 5.34a
Flensburg 4.30a
Frankenberg/Eder 3.38
Frankfurt am Main 1.35
Frankfurt an der Oder 1.27b (two versions)
Freiberg 2.39
Freising 1.40c
Fritzlar 3.39b
Fulda 1.25e (two versions)
Geldern 3.17c
Görlitz 2.45
Gotha 1.25d (two versions)
Halberstadt 3.41a
Halle/Saale 5.48a
Hamburg 1.24b, 4.36 (two ver-
sions)
Hann. Münden 4.39
Heide 5.38a
Heidelberg 1.34a
Heilbronn 6.16a
Hildesheim 5.48b
Husum 4.33a, 5.35b
Igel 5.23c
Ingolstadt 1.40b
Itzehoe 4.30b
Jena 1.25b (two versions)
Kalkar 2.35
Kassel 1.26b
Kempten 2.38
Kiel 4.34
Kleve 2.34a
Koblenz 1.36b
Köln 1.38
Konstanz 2.41a
Krempe 4.35a
Landshut 3.45
Lauingen 4.45b
Leipzig 1.28b, 6.17
Lindau 1.31d (two versions)
Lippstadt 4.20a
Lübeck 1.24a
Lüneburg 1.23b, 5.42
Magdeburg 1.30 (two versions)
Mainz 1.37a
Manderscheid 5.25c
Marburg 1.26a
Marienberg 6.19
Meißen 2.44
Meldorf 5.38b
München 1.40a, 4.43
Münster 1.22a
Münstermaifeld 5.24b
Neuss 2.33a, 4.23
Nördlingen 1.40d
Nürnberg 1.31a (two versions), 2.43
Oberwesel 4.24a
Osnabrück 1.22b
Passau 3.46
Penig 6.20
Pfalzel 5.26b
Plön 5.36
Quedlinburg 3.41b
Ratzeburg 5.43
Regensburg 1.40e, 5.51
Rendsburg 4.35b
Reutlingen 6.16c
Rostock 1.27c, 5.47
Rothenburg ob der Tauber 1.36c
Saarburg 5.26a
Schleswig 4.31
Schwäbisch Hall 2.37
Siegen 6.12b
Soest 3.37a, 4.21
Speyer 1.34b
Stade 1.23d, 5.40
Straubing 1.40f
Tönning 5.35a
Trier 1.36a
Tübingen 4.40b
Ulm 1.31b (two versions)
Warburg 3.37b
Weimar 1.25a (two versions), 3.42
Wesel 1.22c, 4.19
Wismar 1.27d (two versions),
5.46
Wittenberg 1.27a (two states)
Worms 1.34c
Würzburg 1.37b
Zell 5.25a
Zschopau 6.14

Greece
Chios 4.57
Heraklio 2.53a
Kerkyra (Corfu) 2.53b
Methoni 2.52c
Rodos 1.50c

Hungary
Budapest: Buda 1.41b, 6.30
Drégelypalánk 6.39
Eger 6.32
Esztergom 5.57
Györ 5.54
Pápa 6.35
Sárosd 6.38
Szolnok 6.33
Tata 6.34
Törökszentmiklos 6.37
Visegrád 5.56b

Ireland
Cork 6.03d
Dublin 6.03b
Galway 6.03a
Limerick 6.03c

Italy
Acquapendente 5.63a
Agnano-Pozzuoli 3.57
Ancona 1.46
Bologna 4.49
Bressanone 4.45a
Cagliari 1.50a
Caiazzo 5.66
Caprarola: Palazzo Farnese 5.61
Castelnuovo di Porto 5.64b
Catania 5.69
Firenze 1.44b
Fondi 5.62
Formia 3.55
Gallipoli 5.67
Genova 1.44a
Loreto 3.51b
Lucca 4.50
Mantova 2.50
Messina 1.49, 6.58
Milano 1.42
Napoli 1.47
Napoli and Vesuvio 5.65
Nocera Umbra 5.64a
Novara 6.56
Orvieto 3.51a
Ostia 4.53
Padova 6.55
Palermo 1.48c, 4.56
Palmanova 5.68
Parma 1.48a
Perugia 4.51
Pesaro 3.50
Pozzuoli 3.56
Pozzuoli - Solfatara 3.58
Pozzuoli Bay 2.51
Rimini 4.48
Roma 1.45, 2.49, 4.54
Siena 1.48b
Sulmona 4.52b
Terracina 3.54
Tivoli 3.52
Trapani 1.48d
Trento 3.48
Treviso 5.63b
Tricarico 6.57
Urbino 4.52a
Velletri 3.53
Venezia 1.43
Venezia: Piazza San Marco
and Piazetta 5.60
Verona 3.49
Vicenza 4.47
Vittorio Veneto 4.46

Latvia
Riga 3.43b

Lithuania
Vilnius [Wilna] 3.59

Luxembourg
Luxembourg 3.16, 5.23a
Mansfeld 5.23b

Malta
Valletta 1.50b

Netherlands
Amersfoort 4.15
Amsterdam 1.20, 6.10
Arnhem 3.17a
Bergen op Zoom 3.14
Bolsward 4.17a
Brielle 2.27
Brouwershaven 1.21b
Delft 3.29
Den Haag 6.09
Deventer 3.33
Dokkum 4.18b
Dordrecht 2.24, 3.28
Enkhuizen 3.30
Franeker 3.36b
Gennep 2.34d
Gorinchem 1.21c
Gouda 3.31b, 4.14
Groningen 1.21a, 2.31
Haarlem 2.26
Harderwijk 5.29
Harlingen 4.17c
’s-Hertogenbosch 1.18a (two versions),
4.12
Hindeloopen 4.17d
IJlst 4.18d
Kampen 2.30, 3.34
Leeuwarden 3.36a
Leiden 2.25
Maastricht 2.21, 3.15
Middelburg 2.28
Nijmegen 2.29, 3.18
Roermond 3.17d
Rotterdam 3.31a, 4.13
Sloten 4.18c
Sluis 3.21
Sneek 4.18a
Stavoren 4.17b
Utrecht 1.19
Venlo 3.17b
Vlissingen 5.28
Zutphen 4.16
Zwolle 3.35

Norway
Bergen 4.37

Poland
Biecz 6.50b
Gdansk 2.46
Kalwarya Zebrzydowska 6.45
Kraków 6.43, 6.44
Krosno 6.46b
Legnica 6.18b
Lowicz 6.51
Lublin 6.48
Nysa 6.18a
Poznan 6.46a
Przemysl 6.52
Sandomierz 6.50a
Swiebodzin 5.50
Szczecin 4.41 (two versions)
Warszawa 6.47
Wroclaw 4.42
Zamosc 6.53

Portugal
Braga 5.03
Cascais & Belem 1.01b
Coimbra 5.04
Lisboa 1.01a, 5.02

Romania
Cluj-Napoca (Kolozsvár) 6.41
Oradea (Nagyvárad) 6.40

Russia
Kaliningrad (Königsberg) 3.43a
Moskva 2.47, 6.54

Slovakia
Bratislava (Pozsony, Pressburg) 4.44
Komárno (Komárom, Komorn) 5.55
Košice (Kassa, Kaschau) 6.31
Nové Zámky (Érsekújvár,
Neuhäusl) 5.56a

Spain
Alhama de Granada 2.03
Antequera 2.04
Archidona 5.09
Ardales 5.11a
Barcelona 1.05a
Bilbao 2.08
Bornos 5.12a
Burgos 1.06a
Cádiz 1.02b, 5.05, 5.06
Cartama 5.11b
Ceuta 1.56c
Conil 2.06a
Córdoba 6.05
Écija 1.05b
Gerena 5.08b
Granada 1.04, 1.05b (1st state), 5.13, 5.14
Jerez de la Frontera 2.06b
Las Alcantarillas 5.10b
Las Cabezas de San Juan 5.10c
Lebrija 3.05a
Loja 2.07
Los Palacios 5.10a
Málaga 1.02c
Marchena 4.03a
Osuna 4.03b
San Adrián 5.16
San Juan de Aznalfarache 5.08a
San Lorenzo de El Escorial:
Escorial 6.04
San Sebastian 1.06b
Santander 2.09
Setenil 3.05b
Sevilla 1.02a, 4.02, 5.07,
5.08c-d
Toledo 1.03a, 5.15
Valladolid 1.03b
Vejer de la Frontera 2.05a
Vélez Málaga 2.05b
Zahara 5.12b

Switzerland
Altdorf 1.32i
Appenzell 1.32m
Baden 2.36d
Basel 1.32e, 2.40
(two versions)
Bern 1.32g
Glarus 1.32d
Luzern 1.32h
Sankt-Gallen 2.41b
Sarnen 1.32b
Schaffhausen 1.32l
Schwyz 1.32a
Sion 1.37c
Solothurn 1.32k
Zug 1.32c
Zürich 1.32f, 3.44

Turkey
Istanbul 1.51

Ukraine
L’viv (Lemberg) 6.49

United Kingdom
Bristol 3.02
Cambridge 2.01
Canterbury 4.01
Chester 3.03
Edinburgh 3.04
Exeter 6.01
Lancaster 6.02c
London 1.A
Nonsuch Palace 5.01
Norwich 3.01
Oxford 2.02a
Richmond Castle 6.02d
Shrewsbury 6.02b
Windsor 2.02b
York 6.02a

Sweden
Helsingborg 4.29a
Hven 4.27
Landskrona 4.29d
Lund 4.29b
Malmö 4.29c
Stockholm 4.38
Visby (Gotland) 5.39

Africa
Alexandria 2.56 (two versions)
Algiers 2.59
Arzila 1.56d
Azemmour 1.57b
Cairo 1.55 (two versions)
Casablanca 1.57a
Elmina 1.54d
Kilwa Kisiwani 1.53c
Mahdia 2.57b
Mombasa 1.53b
Peñon de Velez 2.57c
Safi 1.56b
Salé 1.56e
Sofala 1.53d
Tanger 1.56a
Tunis 2.57a, 2.58

America
Cuzco 1.58b
Mexico 1.58a

Asia
Aden 1.53a
Calicut 1.54a
Cannanore 1.54c
Damascus 2.55 (two versions)
Diu 1.57c
Famagusta 1.50d
Goa 1.57d
Hormuz 1.54b
Jerusalem 1.52, 2.54, 4.58-59

Plates and maps
Costumes of Dithmarsch 5.37
Denmark 4.25
Hainaut (heraldic garden) 3.23

2. GUICCIARDINI L. (1567), La description de touts les Païs Bas, Antwerp, Silvius

Text for the town of Delft (part 3, no. 29) in the Latin, German and French editions.

Latin edition

DELPHIVM
(1) DELPHIVM, Celeberrimum in Batauis oppidum, secundum in Hollandiæ Statibus locum obtinet. Gentis ipsius lingua ex frequentibus Mosæ alueis eò deductis, nomen sortitum, vulgari namque sermone, fodere, siue alueum & fossam ducere, Delffen, indigetant.
(2) Duobus milliaribus Roterodamo, Erasmi illius doctissimi patria, vnico verò, eoque exiguo à maximo, & venustissimo totius Europæ pago, Haga comitis distat.
(3) Conditum olim ab illo Gothofredo Lotharingiæ Duce, cognomento, Gibbo, Anno salutis M.LXXV, qui ciuitati imposuit Castrum, seu præsidium, in quo & habitabat, cuius iam nulla extant vestigia, & cum annis quatuor per tyrannidem Hollandico potitus Comitatu fuisset, à Theodoro, eius nominis V, legitimo Hollandiæ Comite victus, è Comitatu tandem expulsus, veruto Antvverpiæ suffossus est.
(4) Id oppidum copiosum ac lautum, valido murorum ambitu cinctum, vallo, ac propugnaculis firmum, sed & reticulato sæpimento, muri instar, valde munitum, aqua etiam ea latitudine ambitur, quam vir, alioqui fortissimus, lapidis iactu superare haud queat.
(5) Varijs euripis atque canalibus, ad magnam civium opportunitatem passim distinctum, & aquis mirificè instructum. Unde quemadmodum in ædium & domesticæ supellectilis nitore atque mundicie, communi eorum sententia, qui varias mundi perlustrarunt partes, vni Holllandiæ palma conceditur: ita in nitidissima Hollandia, primas eius laudes inter omnes eiusdem territorij urbes, soli attribuunt Delphio.
(6) Quò etenim pluvia frequentior, quæ alias defoedare urbes ut plurimum solet, eò venustius huius oppidi vici & plateæ, ob situm nimirum elegantem, nitent, cum ea occasione sordes omnes ad canales & aquas, peroportune transmittat.
(7) Inhabitatores ipsi peculiari quadam, & innata humanitate, civilitate morum, ac politia culti, Mercaturam & Lanificium exercent, sapidam ac præstantem cerevisiam coquunt, remotisque in locis distrahunt: unde eius opificij, imò negociationis dixeris, cives sunt opulentissimi.
(8) Aedificia tam publica quam privata, sumptuosa & superba.
(9) Atque ut prius ab his, quæ religioni nuncupata, exordiar, Primaria urbis Ecclesia, quam novam appellitant, cuivis prima sunt posita fundamenta M.CCC.LVI salutis anno, Basilica augusta & elegans, D. Ursulæ sacra, præstantissimis summorum artificum Hemskerchii nimirum, Francisci Flori, Antonij Blocklandi, & Petri cognomento Longi, picturis eleganter oranata, eleganti turri remitissimè visendam exhibet.
(10) Veterem autem ecclesiam D. Hyppolito dicatam, Hembskerchij, & M. Ioannis Schorimanus, Ultraiectini quondam Canonici, cuivis visendæ in tota passim Ho0llandia ; conspiciuntur picturæ, decenter exornant.
(11) Sed, quid de S. Agathæ coenobio referam? Sive enim structurarum magnificentiam (Principes namque viros, hospitio frequenter excepit) sive redituum & annui census opulentiam, sive templi ornatum consideres, singula hæc, narrationis longè superant fidem. Eius namque virginei coetus Basilica, propter arctam Musij, eiusdem coenobij Præfecti vigilantissimi, & Hembskerchij Harlemicolæ, illius quidem poêtæ clarissimi, huius verò pictoris celeberrimi, amicitiam, tota intus exquisitissimis picturis contecta, vestitaque erat.
(12) Spaciosum & amplissimum est oppidi forum, cui, sicut Orientali in latere, per augusta & præcipua Basilica, ita in occiduo senatoria domus, splendore longè maximo existit, præcelsa turri, & in ea campanaria harmonia, conspicua, qua celebrium nuptiarum tempore, dum itidem forum nundinis hebdomadarijs frequentatur, lepida exercetur musica, quæ, uti epulantes in nuptijs, iucundissima suavitate exhilarat, ita vendentes, ementesque in forum allicere videtur.
(13) In suburbijs, omnis generis mercatura exercetur, domus sunt elegantes, hospitia ampla, que hospites, si re pecuniaria bellè instructi, lautissimè excipiant.
(14) Atque hæc blandientis fortunæ Delphensium, arcta & compendiosa sit quædam narratio.
(15) Verum, cum nihil sub sole firmum, nihil constans, ac stabile: infausti subinde casus, eius fælicitatem interruperunt, dum rabidi Martis, & implacabilis Vulcani furores, præclaram hanc urbem turpiter quandoque deformarunt.
(16) Ab Adelberto siquidem Bavaro vicesimo sexto Hollandiæ Comite, gravi obsidione pressa, privilegijs, murisque privatur. Sed à subsequenti statim Comite, Guilielmo Bavariæ, privilegia civica ipsis restituta sunt, & moenia restaurata, ob acquisitam, Delphensium ope, contra Frisones victoriam.
(17) Anno deinde M.LXXXVI*
in Maio, ipso S. Crucis die, statim à prandio, miserando infortunio hæc urbs circumvenitur. In ea.enimcum improviso casu gravissimum erupisset incendium, utramque Parochialem ecclesiam, novam & veterem, Xenodochia, & ducentos, ultra mille, focos, absumpsit, vix quinta urbis parte remanente illæsa.
(18) Mirabile verò, quod in tanto illo incendio à pluribus conspectum, neque olim fortasse à primis illis naturæ observatoribus, neque ab ijs, qui nostro seculo vixerunt, alibi animadversum fuit. Plinius quidem & alij, non postremæ notæ auctores, ceu rem magnam, & observatu imprimis (uti re vera est) dignam tradunt, ciconiarum sobolem, ætate graves, & ad cibum quærendum viribus defectos parentes fovere, atque alere: sed, quod ab ijsdem animalibus exemplum id temporis editum fuit, & maius quiddam est, & maiore admiratione dignum.
(19) Ad hanc urbem, loco ad huiusmodi volucrium pastum perquàm idoneo sitam, magnæ quotannis earum, cohortes nidificaturæ convolant.
(20) Incidit autem hæc incendij calamitas in diem Maij tertium, quo tempore ciconiolae iam grandiusculæ sunt. A multis igitur illic visum ac observatum fuit, parentes, cum flammam & natis, & nidis instare cernerent, primum omni ope adnixas, ut natos flammis eriperent, cum deinde corporis mole graviores gestare non possent, eos alis, quantum poterant, contexisse, adversusque incendia & flammas propugnasse ; ad extremum, tanquam superstites eis esse recusarent ; incendio unà consumptas, mori sustinisse.
(21) Hinc oriundus erat scelus ille David Georg, abominabilis conditor sectæ, de qua plura in Indice.
(22) Quod quidem in huius urbis contumeliam minimè narratum putandum; cum vicissim viros honorandos ac suspiciendos plurimos genuerit, quales imprimis fuerunt Aegidius Poëta, & Ioannes Grammaticus. Multo verò omnium præstantissimus Iodocus Sasboutius, clarissimus utriusque Iuris Doctor, Cancellariæ Geldricae Præses à Carolo V constitutus, & simul Poëta elegantissimus, cum ad extremum iam vitæ appropinquaret, hoc sibi ipse Epitaphium conscripsit, quod hodieque in eius tumulo, apud Arnemium primario in templo conspicuum, huc, propter elegantiam & pietatem, adscribere visum est.
(23)
Siste gradum: quod es, ipse sui, fortaßis eris cras
Quod sum, cadauer putridum.
Olim Iodocus eram Sasbout: me misit in auras
Delft, clara pars Bataviæ.
Ter denis patriæ causas decidimus annis,
Pars consili haud ingloria,
Deinde & pacatis Præses ius Cæsare Gueldris
Dixi, iubente Carolo.
Quid tituli? quid opes? quid nunc prudentiæ prodest?
Mors summa miscet inferis.
Sola manet virtus homini post funera, solam,
Dum vivis, hanc ama.

(24) Eadem etiam civitas inter cæteros eruditione præstantes viros habuit, Cornelium Mussium, virginei sodalitij ad S. Agatham, Rectorem, virum rara morum probitate, Theologum insignem, Poëtam elegantissimum, & virum Dei, infoelici hoc nostro ævo, martyrem.

German text

Delfft
(1) Delfft ein weitberümbte statt in Holland, welche den andern grad under den Stathen in Hollandt besitzt, hat nach der spraach desselben volcks den namen von den vilen Teichen, so auß der Maaß dahin geleit worden, bekommen. Dann graben, und einen Teich oder Grube auffwerffen, heissen sie daselbst in gemeiner spraach Delffen.
(2) Sie ligt zwo meil von Rotterdamm, deß hochgelehrten Erasmi Roterodami heimet: aber nur eine unnd darzu kleine meil von dem grössesten und aller lüstigsten Dorff in gantz Europa, Graffen Hagh.
(3) Ist vorzeiten im jar 1075 durch Gothifredum den Hertzogen von Lothringen mit dem zunamen Der Hubbericht, erbawet worden, welcher auch ein Schloß oder Festung darin gebawt, auff welchem er gewohnt, dessen man auch noch etliche anzeigungen findt: und nach dem eer die Graffschafft Holland vier jar lang mit gewalt innen gehabt, ist er darnach von Graff Theodoro dem fünfften dieses namens und rechten Erben Hollands uberwunden, endlich auß der Graffschafft vertriben, und zu Antorff durchspitzt worden.
(4) Diese volckreiche und herliche statt mit starcken Ringmauren umbgeben, darzu nicht allein mit einem Wall und Bastey befestigt, sonder auch mit einem geflöchten Zaun, wie mit einer Mauren, wol verwart, ja auch mit so einem breiten Wassergraben umbringt, daß ein starcxker mann mit einem Stein kaum hinüber werffen kan.
(5) Darneben ist sie auch mit vielen Wasserströmen und Känelen, gantz füglich vor die bürgerschafft, underscheiden, und darumb mit Wasser wunder wol versorgty: daher dann geschicht, daß, wie mit einheiliger zusammen stimmung aller deren, so viel örter der Welt durchwandert haben, dem Hollandt allein, der glantz und reinigkeit im Haußrhat zu halten zugeschrieben wirt, also die Holländer selbst den vornembsten theil solches lobs under allen stätten desselben gebieths der statt Delfft allein zumessen.
(6) Dann je öffter es regnet, welches andere stätt gemeiniglich pflegt wüst zu machen, je säuberer die Gassen in dieser Statt glentzen, welches dann ihrer schönen gelegenheit halben geschicht, sintemal sie also alle unsauberkeit fein in obgedachte Wasserkänel tragen.
(7) Die inwohner sind sonderlich und von natur leutselig, höfflich und bescheiden: sie treiben Kauffmanschafft und Wolweck: bräwen wolschmeckend und köstlich Bier, und verhandeln dasselbige in fernen landen, daher dann die bürger, so diß handweck, oder viel mehr diese Kauffmanscahft uben, die aller reichsten sind.
(8) Die Häuser drinn, so wol die gemeine, als auch die eigene, sind köstlich und prächtig gebawt.
(9) Und damit ich erstlich an denen, so die Religion belangen, anfahe zu reden, ist die Haubtkirch daselbst, welche sie die Newe heissen, der Fundament im jar 1356. erst gelegt worden, eine grosse, herliche und schöne Kirch, im namen S. Ursulae erbawet, und mit gewaltig schönem Bildwerck der aller künstrichsten meister, als Hemskirchij, Francisci Flori, Antonij Blochland und Petri Langen gantz herlich geziert: läst sich auch mit einem hübschen Thorn von weitem sehen.
(10) Die alte Kirch, nemlich S. Hyppoliti, wirt auch durch M. Joh. Schori, welcher vorzeiten ein Canonicus zu Utrecht gewesen, dessen Gemähl man auch hin und wider in gantz Holland findt, und durch obgemeldten Hemskirchij handarbeit gantz hofflich illustriert.
(11) Was soll ich von S. Agathæ closter sagen? Dann ob du gleich seinen herlichen baw, (singemal es offtermals Fürsten beherberget) oder abder seine Renthen, und järlich einkommens, oder auch die zierde seiner kirchen betrachtest, sind doch alle diese ding und ein jedes insonderheit, grösser, dann gläubwirdig dauon zu sagen ist. Dann die krich desselbigen Jungfrawclosters, war von wegen ger grossen freundtschafft zwischen Musio, dem vorständer oder Abt gemelten Closters, und zwischen Hemskirchio wonhanfftig zu Harlem, deren jener ein weitberühmbter Poet, dieser aber ein namhaffter Mahler ist, inwendig mit gar alten Gemählen gantz bedeckt und getäffelt.
(12) Es hat einen grossen und sehr weiten Marckt in dieser statt, und wie demselbigen auff der seiten gegen morgen die herliche haubtkirch grosse zierd anlegt, also zieret ihn auch auff der seiten gegen abendt das Rahthauß uber auß herlich, und solches von wegen seines herlichen Thorns und Musick seiner Glocken darauff, welche zu statlichen Hochzeiten, wenn ohn das der Marckt deß Wochenmarcks halben voller volcks ist, lieblich darauff gehalten wirt: und wie sie mit irem lieblichen gethön die Hochzeitleut uber der mahlzeit frölich macht, also scheinets auch, als ob sie die käuffer und verkäuffer gleichfals auff den Marckt herzu locke.
(13) In der Vorstatt treibt man auch allerley kauffmanschafft, hat schöne Häuser drinn, und grosse Herbergen, welche die Gäst, wenn sie nur wol gelt haben, herlich auffnemen und tracieren.
(14) Diß sey also kürtzlich von dem glückseligen standt der Delffter gesagt.
(15) Aber wie nichts under der Sonnen durchaus beständig und standhafftig ist, also haben auch jederweil etliche unglückliche zufäll diese ire glückseligkeit verstörret, da nemlich die unsinnige kriegslauff und Brandt diese herliche statt schändtlich mißhandelt und verwüstet.
(16) Dann durch Adelbertum von Beyern, den sechszehenden Graffen in Holland, ist sie mit einer harten belägerung bedrungen, darzu irer Freiheiten und Mauren beraubt worden, aber von Guilielmo auß Beyern, den nechst folgenden Graffen, von wegen deß Siegs, so er mit der Delffter hülff wider die Friesen erlangt, alles wider bekommen.
(17) Darnach anno 1086
** ist sie im Meyen, eben auff den H. Creutz tag, bald nach den morgen Imbß, mit einem erbärmlichen unglück uberfallen worden. Dann als da unversehens ein groß und schwerlich Fewr entstanden, hat es beide Pfarkirchen, die newe und alte, mit den Spitälen, sampt tausent und zweyhundert Fewrstetten verzehrt, daß also kaum der fünffte theil der statt unbeschädigt blieben.
(18) Es hat sich aber mitlerweil ein wunder ding zugetragen, welches viel leut in solchen grossen Brandt gesehen, unnd villeicht vorzeiten weder von den ersten erkündigern der Natur, noch von denen, die zu unser zeit gelebt, anderswo vermerckt worden. Plinius zwar, und andere ansehnliche Scribenten mehr, schreiben, als sey es ein groß ding, und (wie es dann auch in der warheit ist, vornemlich wol zu mercken), nemlich, daß die junge Storcken ire Eltern, wenn sie alters halben schwach und nun mehr ire nahrung zu suchen krafftloß worden, beschirmen und ernehren. Aber das Exempel, so man zu der zeit an diser Biesten gesehen, ist nie allein grösser, sonder auch etwas höher zu verwundern.
(19) In diser statt, sintemal sie auff einem solchen ort, da dieselbe Vögel füglich können gespeist werden, gelegen ist, kommen ihr järlich grosse Herden zusamen alda zu nisten.
(20) Nun hat sich aber dieser schädliche Brandt den dritten tag Maij erhaben, umb welche zeit die junge Störcklein schon zimlich erwachsen. Da haben viel leut gesehen und gemerckt, wie die alten, als sie vernommen, daß das Fewr schon an ire jungen und Nester reicht, sich erstlich höchlich beflossen, ire jungen auß dem Fewr beschützt, und letzlich, als wenn sie nicht länger leben wöllen dann jene, sich mit inen verbrennen lassen.
(21) Auß dieser statt war burtig der schandfleck David Jörg, der anfänger einer verfluchten Ketzerey, von welcher im Register weiter sol geredt werden.
(22) Man sol aber nicht meinen, daß diß diser statt zur schmach alhie geredt sey, sintemal sie dargegen viel ehrwirdige und wunder geschickte Männer herfür bracht, under welchen die vornembsten gewesen sind Aegidius der Poet, Joh. Grammaticus, und der vortrefflichste under allen, Jodocus Sasboutius, ein hochberümbter Doctor beider Rechten, welcher von keyser Carolo dem fünfften zum öbersten Richter in die Cantzeley zu Geldern gesetzt, auch ein vortrefflich guter Poet gewesen, und im selbst in seinen letzten tagen diß Epitaphium oder Grabschrift geschrieben, welche auch noch heutigs tags auff seinem Grabe, in der Haubtkirchen zu Arnheim gesehen wirt, und uns von wegen der schonheit und Gottsförchtigkeit, so darauß erscheinet, herzu zu schreiben gefallen.
(23)
Siste gradum: quod es, ipse fui, fortaßis eris cras
Quod sum, cadauer putridum.
Olim Iodocus eram Sasbout: me misit in auras
Delfft, clara pars Batavia
Ter denis patriæ causas decidimus annis,
Pars Consili haud ingloria,
Deinde& pacatis præses ius Cæsare Gueldris
Dixi, iubente Carolo.
Quid tituli? quid opes? quid nunc prudentia prodest?
Mors summa miscet inferis.
Sola manet virtus homini post funera, solam,
Dum vivis, hanc æma.

(24) Es hat auch diese statt under andern gelehten Männern den Cornelium Musium an tag gebracht, welcher ein Abt deß Frawenclosters S. Agathæ gewesen, ein frommer auffrichtiger Mann, deßgleichen man wenig findt, ein gelehter Theologus, guter Poet, und zu dieser under betrübter zeit ein warer Märterer Gottes.


French text

DELFT
(1) DELFT, Ville tresfameuse d’Hollande, a le second lieu entre les Estats d’Hollande, prennant son nom en langaige commun du grand nombre des fossez de la Muese. Car DELFVEN signifie fouir & faire une fossee.
(2) Elle est distante de Rotterdam, lieu de naissance de ce tresdoct Erasme, deux lieues, & une du villaige appellè SGRAVEN HAGHE, qui est le plusgrand & plusbeau de l’Europe.
(3) Elle fut iadis fundee par Godefroy Ducq de Loraine, surnommè Bossu, l’An de salut M.LXXV: y edifiant ung Chasteau, au quel il demeuroir, duquel a present n’y a aulcune memoire. Lequel apres auoir par l’espace de quattre ans tenu par force la Contè d’Hollande, fut vaincu & expulsè de Theodore cincquiesme de ce nom, Contelegittime d’Hollande, & finablement tuè en Anuers d’ung dart, comme on dict.
(4) La ville est peuplee & riche, enuironnee de muraille forte, & boulreuerts, auecq une closture de hayes en façon de rets, seruants d’aultre muraille, & d’ung fossè d’eaue, si large qu’ung homme bien robust nescauroit iecter une pierre oultre icelle:
(5) ayant dedens la ville plusieurs canaulx & fossez d’eaue, a grande commodite des bourgeois. Par ou, comme toutte l’Hollande est en admiration aux estrangiers, pour la curiosite & nettete en leurs maisons & mesnaige: ainsi sont ceulx de ceste ville, a la reste du paijs.
(6) Car plusgrande y est la pluye, tanty sont plusnettes les rues & carrefours, pour la bonnen ordonnance: Car l’eaue de pluye emporte touttes les ordures par les canaulx ad ce commodieusement construicts. Dont le contraire aduient communement aux aultres villes: ou, tant plusgrande est la pluye, tant y sont les rues plusordes.
(7) Les habitans sont singulierement courtoiz & netz, s’exerceants en toutte sorte de marchandise, & principalement de Draperie, & brassent ceruoise fort bonne, laquelle ilz transportent en lieux bien esloingez: lequel mestier (ou pour mieulx dire negotiation) les faict tresriches.
(8) Les edifices tant publicqz que priuez y sont sumptueuz.
(9) Et pour commencer des lieux sacrez: l’Eglise principale, y appellee, la nouuelle, fundee l’an de Grace M.CCC.LVI, magnifique & belle, dediee a S. Ursule, se voit de bien loing, pour la belle & treshaulte tour: ornee de painctures singulieres, des painctres plusfameus: asscauoir d’Hemskercke, François Floris, Anthoine Blockland, & de Pierre surnommè le Long.
(10) L’Eglise ancienne dediee a S. Hippolyte est aussi fort ornee de painctures & tableaux dudict Hemskercke, & de Maistre Iean Schore, iadis Chanoine d’Utrecht, duquel on trouue plusieurs oeuures & painctures excellentes per toutte l’Hollande.
(11) Mais que diray-ie du Cloistree de Saincte Agathe? Car ne la magnificence des structures & bastimens (car les Princes y ont souuentesfois logè) ne les richesses du reuenu annuel, ne aussi les ornemens interieurs de l’Eglise, polroient estre recitez selon leur merites. Car l’Eglise de cestes Religieuses estoit quasi vestue & couuerte dedens par tout, de pictures exquises, pour la grande affection que porterentay-dict lieu, Musius Poete tresfameus, Recteur tresuiigilant dudict Cloistre, & Hemskercke bourgeois d’Harlem painctre trescelebre.
(12) Le marchè de la ville est grand & large: au costè du Leuant duquel est l’Eglise principale, & a l’opposite, la maison de la ville, auecq une tour treshaulte, en laquelle y a ung accord de cloches, sur lequel on ioue & bastele au temps de quelques nopces de personnes de qualite, & aux foires hebdommadales: duquel, comme se resiouissent les inuitez aux nopces, ainsi en sont tirez les marchants & aultres au marchè.
(13) Aux fauxbourgs s’exerce toutte sorte de marchandise. Les maisons sont belles & les hostelleries grandes, ou les estrangiers & hostes sont bien recueillez & traictez, s’ilz sont bien furniz d’argent.
(14) Et ce en brief de ceulx de Delft, en temps de pais & prosperite.
(15) Mais commeau monde toutte chose est muable, elle a eu aussi sa part des guerres & desgastz du feu, dont ella a parfois este deformee.
(16) Car estant assiegee par Albert de Bauieres Conte XXVI d’Hollande, fut priuee de ses preuileges & murailles. Lesquelz leur furent tost apres renduz par le Conte Guillame de Bauieres son successeur, pour la victoire qu’il obtint contre les Frisons par leur assistence.
(17) Elle a sort gastee du feu l’an M.LXXXVI*** au mois de May le iour de la Saincte Croix apres disner. Car le feu y venant a l’impourueu, brusla les deux Eglises parochielles, la nouuelle & vielle, les hospitaulx, & plus de Mil deux Cents maisons, y demeurant a grand peine la cincquiesme part de la dicte ville entiere.
(18) Auquel feu aduint vne chose merueilleuse: laquelle ne de ceulx de nostre temps, ne ceulx qui ont du passè descript & obseruè les choses naturelles, ont obseruè. Plinius, & aultres Autheurs de renom, ont bien escript & laissè a la posterite pour chose grande & digne d’admiration (comme vrayement elle est) que les ieunes Cicognes nourrissent leurs parens, desaillans par viellesse, & ne se scaçans bonnement a yder: mais lors fut ausdicts animaulx obseruee chose plusmerueilleuse, & digne d’estre notee.
(19) En ceste ville (comme lieu fort idoine & commode a nourrir ces oiseaulx) viennent annuellement plusieurs trouppes d’iceulx faire leurs nids.
(20) Et comme ceste calamite & feu aduint le troisiesme de May, quand les petittes Cicognes commencent estre grandes, fut veu & observuè de plusieurs, que les meres (voyans le feu approcher de leurs nids & petits) sisrent extreme debuoir de porter leurs petits hors des flammes. Mais comme elles ne le scuerent faire pour leur grandeur & pesanteur, se sont mises a les couurir de leurs ailes, & les gsarder de feu & flamme, si long tempes que leur fut possible. A la parfin se sont laissees brusler auecq iceulx, comme s’elles n’oeussent voulu viure apres eulx.
(21) De ceste ville estoit natif ce detestable Dauid George, Autheur d’vne secte abominable: de laquelle sera plus dict en la Table.
(22) Ce que ne diz en mesprisement de ceste ville: car d’icelle sont pereillement natifs plusieurs personnagtes honnorables: desquelz sont este Aegidius Poeta & Ioannes Grammaticus, Monsieur Maistre Iosse Sasbout, Docteur tresfameus es Droicts, constitue par l’Empereur Charles cincquiesma Chancelier de Gelres, Poete treselegant: lequel se voyant approcher a la mort, a de foy mesme escript cest Epithaphe, lequel se voit encoires a sa sepulture, en l’Eglise principale de la ville d’Arnhem, mis icy pour sa piete & elegance:
(23) Siste gradum: quod es, ipse sui, fortassis eris cras
Quod sum, cadauer putridum.
Olim Iodocus eram Sasbout: me misit in auras
Delft, clara pars Bataviæ.
Ter denis patriæ causas decidimus annis,
Pars Consili haud ingloria,
Deinde & pacatis Præses ius Cæsare Gueldris
Dixi, iubente Carolo.
Quid tituli? quid opes? quid nunc prudentiæ prodest?
Mors summa miscet inferis.
Sola manet virtus homini post funera, solam,
Dum vivis, hanc æma.
(24) La mesme ville a aussi aultres produict Cornelium Musium, Recteur des Religieuses de S. Agathe, homme de modestie rare, Theologien excellent, & Poete tresfameus, & vray Martyr de Dieu en ce nostre temps tresmalheureus.

* Printing error, also in Latin text, M LXXXVI [1086] instead of M DXXXVI [1536].
** Erroneous, printing error in the Latin text M LXXXVI [1086] instead of M DXXXVI [1536].
*** Printing error, M LXXXVI [1086] instead of M DXXXVI [1536].

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Notes

1 TOOLEY R.V. (1966), “Preface” to Mirror of the World, a series of early books on the history of urbanization, Braun & Hogenberg Civitates Orbis Terrarum with an introduction by R.A. Skelton, Cleveland & New York.

2 VAN DER KROGT P. (1998), “The Theatrum Orbis Terrarum: The first atlas?” in Abraham Ortelius and the first atlas: Essays commemorating the Quadricentennial of his Death, 1598-1998, edited by Marcel van den Broecke, Peter van der Krogt, Peter Meurer, pp. 55-78. ‘t Goy-Houten: HES Publishers.

3 VAN DER KROGT P., Koeman's Atlantes Neerlandici IV: The Town Atlases, ‘t Goy-Houten, HES & De Graaf. (Forthcoming). This article is based on the research for this volume.

4 GUICCIARDINI L. (1567), La description de touts les Païs Bas, Antwerp, Silvius.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1. Title page of part 1 (Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek).
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 796k
Titre Figure 2. Non-European towns in the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 288k
Titre Figure 3. European towns in the Civitates Orbis Terrarum.
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 552k
Titre Figure 4a. Amsterdam in part 1 (Antiquariaat Forum, ’t Goy-Houten).
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 5,4M
Titre Figure 4b. Amsterdam in part 6 (Antiquariaat Forum, ’t Goy-Houten).
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 4,3M
Titre Figure 5. Example of a town plan: Brussels (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 640k
Titre Figure 6. Example of a bird’s-eye view: Frankfurt am Main (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 528k
Titre Figure 7. Example of a town profile: Dunkerque (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 456k
Titre Figure 8. Example of a landscape: Alhama de Granada (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 540k
Titre Figure 9. Example of a battle view: Tunis 1574 (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 604k
Titre Figure 10. Panoramic view of Toledo, from part 5, no. 15 (Hebrew University of Jerusalem), and a photograph from a slightly different view angle, taken on 7 October 2007 (photo: José Manuel Azcona).
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-11.jpg
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URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-12.jpg
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Titre Figure 11. Plan of Palmanova (Antiquariaat Forum, ’t Goy-Houten).
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 4,6M
Titre Figure 12. Plan of Delft (Antiquariaat Forum, ’t Goy-Houten).
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 5,4M
Titre Figure 13. Some of the costumed figures (Hebrew University of Jerusalem).
Légende Besançon (2.16)
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 36k
Légende Huy (2.19)
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 60k
Légende Vilnius (3.59)
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 28k
Légende Granada (5.13)
URL http://belgeo.revues.org/docannexe/image/11877/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 118k
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Pour citer cet article

Référence papier

Peter van der Krogt, « Mapping the towns of Europe: The European towns in Braun & Hogenberg’s Town Atlas, 1572-1617 », Belgeo, 3-4 | 2008, 371-398.

Référence électronique

Peter van der Krogt, « Mapping the towns of Europe: The European towns in Braun & Hogenberg’s Town Atlas, 1572-1617 », Belgeo [En ligne], 3-4 | 2008, mis en ligne le 22 mai 2013, consulté le 26 avril 2017. URL : http://belgeo.revues.org/11877 ; DOI : 10.4000/belgeo.11877

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Auteur

Peter van der Krogt

University of Utrecht, Faculty of Geo- Sciences, p.vanderkrogt@geo.uu.nl

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Droits d’auteur

Licence Creative Commons
Belgeo est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

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